The hottest bridge power enables the fuel cell as

2022-07-28
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Bridge Power: enable the fuel cell to serve as a backup system

mission critical devices are usually protected by backup power generation equipment. These mission critical devices (e.g., data and network operation centers (NOCs), communication centers, high-value manufacturing processes, etc.) require an absolutely uninterrupted continuous power supply. Recently, fuel cell has gradually become a feasible alternative for backup power, and is being adopted by many telecommunications companies to improve their system reliability. The super key device adopts waterfall structure on the premise that it can use general power supply as backup power

bridge power

bridge power describes the short-term power supply demand that acts as a "bridge" between one long-term power supply and another long-term power supply. Hashimoto power is required because the typical standby power generation equipment is not immediately available and requires connection time. A classic case is that a diesel generator is often used as a backup power supply for a hospital facility. During a public power outage, such devices may generally suffer from power failure, including loss of lighting power and non critical loads. Batteries or capacitor banks are locally used to supply power to mission critical devices (either a single uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or devices such as monitors and infusion pumps) until the generator can be started and connected. It is necessary to combine bridge power with long-term power, because the cost of extending bridge power for several minutes is very high, and maintenance and reliability problems will occur. Here, the use of battery will inhibit a single "long-term bridge"

demand for reliable bridge power

according to Steve Fairfax, an industry consultant, "Focusing on the problems that arise, the telecommunications industry generally adopts the wrong conceptual framework... They often talk about effectiveness. What they should do now is to consider reliability. Effectiveness is only a concern when the system is down due to failure. There are too many times in a year when the system is down... Well, many moments are far less important than many events. In a computing environment, half a cycle, that is, a power outage of onehundredth of a second Could destroy the system. A hundred such interruptions can only cause one second of downtime, but if they occur in a year, it will be disastrous. " In this paper, high reliability bridge power between continuous power sources is important for stability in these mission critical environments

fuel cell

as a vehicle energy solution, fuel cell is receiving extensive attention. A simple survey suggests that numerous non-profit organizations and government agencies are touting the benefits of fuel cells in transportation. This is prescient. However, only by making significant improvements in size, weight, cost and fuel reliability can fuel cells be used in real life, not just in vehicles. On the other hand, the backup power field is the current market of fuel cells. Especially for high-level operation, it is required to provide more durability than the typical UPS system

in order to meet the real backup power needs, a fuel cell (FC) backup power system must be able to transmit power at full load. In some devices, the fuel cell system operates in parallel with the public power system, which transmits power to the system all the time, while the public power provides load balancing and backup support. (when such structures also use excess heat energy to heat equipment, they are classified as combined heating and power supply systems.) In a standard fuel cell combined heating and power supply system, once the power is lost, the fuel cell system does not have enough reaction time to deal with the rapid transient phenomenon, so it can not be regarded as a backup power system. In other devices, complete energy storage enhances the fuel cell system to provide rapid transient response. When combined with electricity, energy storage is the "bridge" between two continuous power sources

in a single fuel cell system (a system independent of electricity), the fuel cell can transmit the maximum power required by the load, but it can not respond quickly enough to transmit electricity smoothly in transient phenomena. In this case, the energy reserve "bridges" span this transient phenomenon. Bridge power is the key to a solid fuel cell backup system

many companies install fuel cells where they can make their systems more durable. According to Citigroup research, "switching signals: fuel cells in distributed Telecom backup power systems," based on an interview with 50 members of the telecommunications industry, the telecommunications industry regards reliability as one of the main advantages of fuel cells. Although there is a mistake, the impact energy of projectiles can dissipate rapidly along the fiber direction - fuel cells are more expensive than standard lead acid battery backup power systems. The main factor that urges the telecommunications industry to pay attention to high reliability is that fuel cells have been successfully applied in hospitals, mail processing equipment, garbage landfills, sewage treatment and credit card processing centers for more than a decade. CEA Telecom recently began to provide fuel cells for their customers. They said that "... Our telecom consumers are looking for a reliable backup solution that can provide higher cost performance than traditional energy storage solutions for important communication applications."

life cycle cost is another key factor to be considered when specifying backup power schemes. The report of Citigroup research also includes some data. It shows that during the operation of Telecom stations, the replacement cost of batteries ranges from US $3600 to US $8000. The specific cost depends on their power level, backup duration and warranty period. The report said: "if the replacement cycle of the battery is five years, the fuel cell will save 32% to 35% of the cost compared with the battery backup scheme based on the service life of 10 to 15 years." Even without tax deduction, the report shows that the life cycle cost of fuel cells will be 12% lower under the same base. Tips: if there is anything unclear,% to 18%

the ability of waterfall materials to resist various deformations and damages; Structure

in history, a single power generation method, such as a diesel generator and a simple battery feedback inverter uninterruptible power supply, has been used as a bridge. For these devices, since a typical uninterruptible power supply can only support a load of eight to twenty minutes, a small power failure will not have a great impact. One of the main problems of diesel generator and battery uninterruptible power supply system is reliability and maintenance. Telecom companies need a typical generator/battery combination system to provide higher reliability. More complex architectures are being introduced to serve the telecommunications industry, data systems, and manufacturing processes that cannot withstand the slightest power outage. The "waterfall" system uses a series of different continuous power supply technologies (such as generator, fuel cell and micro turbine) in layers, and uses short-time Bridge Power Technology (such as battery, supercapacitor and energy storage wheel) to span each transition. In terms of many options in the bridge technology, the overall reliability requirements must be considered. With the maturity of super capacitor industry, super capacitor has higher competitiveness than the old-fashioned traditional bridge technology, and has more advantages in many cases

functions provided by supercapacitors

supercapacitors provide functionality, reliability and reduce life cycle cost for the standby power system of key tasks to operate well. Because the supercapacitor is strictly used as a bridge, its high power density is very suitable for providing high-power power power support for a short period of seconds. The size of a battery depends on the length of transmission time. Usually, their size is larger than the actual demand. If the size of a battery is set according to the actual continuous power supply time, it will be difficult to supply the necessary power. In addition, because the supercapacitor works on a completely different principle than the battery, the supercapacitor can delay charging without any capacitance loss. Batteries, on the other hand, are notorious for capacity loss due to delayed charging

there is another obvious difference between supercapacitors and batteries - they are very suitable for supporting fuel cells. The output of a fuel cell varies with the load (the load is controlled by the power electronics). The output value of a battery is quite fixed, so the output load of the fuel cell will affect the performance of the fuel cell (unless it is used for the output of power electrons in the DC system, but the output of the battery will be controlled). On the other hand, a supercapacitor has no fixed working voltage, so it can be directly connected to the output of the fuel cell and directly connected to the power electronics

super capacitor reduces life cycle cost

in the Citigroup report cited earlier, the battery replacement cycle is three to five years, and it is highly dependent on the ambient temperature. Considering that the service life of the battery is based on the ambient temperature of 75 to 78 degrees Fahrenheit, and the temperature change in a set of devices is far beyond this range, shear fracture occurs at about 45 degrees after bearing a large force. However, the supercapacitor can operate with high performance for more than ten years, and has a wider operating temperature range. The most important thing is that it can also reduce the operation and maintenance cost of the whole system

supercapacitors provide reliability

a key challenge for batteries is the difficulty in measuring their state of charge. The operator needs to use a lot of calculations and circuits to indicate how much power is left in the battery. On the other hand, a supercapacitor can be used to measure the voltage separately; When you know the voltage, you know the state of charge. Combined with a wide temperature range, long service life and flexible voltage range, supercapacitors provide an extremely reliable solution for bridge power

how do you guarantee reliable power

according to Steve Fairfax, the problem is very complicated because the reliability of electronic power networks is lower than in the past. "For a variety of reasons, the power supplied by electricity is less reliable than before, and we expect this reliability to continue to decline."

experts also have disputes on how to ensure the reliability of power. Jay Adelson, founder and President of Equinix, a venue rental service company, said, "you are walking in a wrong way." you check your uninterruptible power supply every week, you have installed redundant generators, and you have signed three fuel contracts for diesel engines, so that you may continue to work when the power is cut off, but it is possible. "

with the application of new fuel cell and supercapacitor technology in the commercial field and the feasibility of the technical field, Mr. Adelson's demand will be realized as soon as possible. Supercapacitors can reduce or eliminate the need for weekly maintenance of uninterruptible power supplies, and fuel cells have proven to be much more reliable than generators. With the development of conversion technology (extracting hydrogen from hydrocarbons), a combined heating and power supply fuel cell can be charged by natural gas, which can be transported into the equipment through pipelines, rather than bottled hydrogen. It can ensure 24/7 power availability and does not need to transport diesel fuel. (end)

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